General Information:

Instructor: Katia Obraczka (katia "at"

Office: E2 323

Lab: Internbetwork Research Group (i-NRG) E2 311 (

Classroom: E2 194

Class times: T Th 1:30-3:05

Class Description:

This class covers various topics relevant to wireless networking and mobile computing. It focuses on communication protocols for wireless and mobile networks from medium-access control to end-to-end transport and applications. The course requires extensive reading of research papers and in-class presentations, participation, and discussion. Programming proficiency is assumed since students will be required to complete a major class project.

Pre-requisites: CE 252A or equivalent.

Topics covered include:

. Medium access control

. Unicast and multicast routing

. Wireless internetworking

. End-to-end protocols

. Others:

. Networking paradigms: disruption-tolerant networking, doftware-defined networking, edge computing.

. Mobility characterization and modeling

. Power and topology management

. Security

. Internet of Things


. In-class presentation: 20%

. Reading reports: 10%

. Project: 40%

. Exam: 30%

IMPORTANT NOTE: Grades of C and below will be assigned to students who do not perform satisfactorily. Students should not assume that a passing grade will be assigned simply because this is a graduate class.

Student Responsibilities:

Students enrolled in this class are agreeing to the following:

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: All work turned in as reports, project, and exam MUST be individual. If any work claimed by a student to be his/her own is found to be shared with other students, that will be considered a violation of academic integrity and will NOT BE TOLERATED. Academic integrity violations may result in automatically failing the class. For more information on UCSC's academic integrity policies, visit Students are encouraged to discuss any questions they may have regarding academic integrity.

. Students are responsible for reading the papers that will be covered in a specific lecture BEFORE the lecture. All papers must be read in detail even though not all details will be covered in class. A reading report on the papers read need to be submitted before the class meeting in which the papers will be discussed.

. Students are also responsible for checking the class Web page frequently for updates, schedule changes, etc.

. The course pre-requisite is CMPE 252A or equivalent. Prospective students can talk to the instructor if they do not have the required background. If a student has not taken CMPE 252A (or equivalent) and still wants to take the class, it is the student's responsibility to acquire the corresponding background material.

. As mentioned in the description of the course, students must be proficient (C, C++) programmers as a class term project will account for a considerable portion of the grade.

Class attendance is mandatory. Because this is a graduate class, students are expected to participate actively in class, and that's hard to do if they do not attend class regularly. Attendance will not be recorded, but you cannot pass if you miss more than two classes. If you need to miss a class, please let the instructor know (in advance if possible).

. Much of the course material, including assignments and lecture notes, will be posted on the class Web page. However, students are responsible for all material covered in class, whether or not it appeared on the class Web site.


No textbook is required since most of the required readings will be from research papers. The book "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols" by C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S. Manoj can be used as a reference. Students can check with the instructor on alternate reference sources.

Reading Reports:

Each student is expected to write a one-page report that contains a brief summary of the papers to be read for each class. Summaries are due before the start of the class when the papers will be covered. Summaries are to be submitted as an e-mail attachment (plain text or pdf).

The summary of each paper should include brief answers to the following questions: (1) what is the problem the authors are trying to solve? (2) why is the problem interesting, relevant, and/or important? (3) what other approaches or solutions existed at the time that this work was done? (4) how did the proposed approach contribute to the state-of-the-art, i.e., why existing approaches were not adequate? (5) what is the proposed approach and how does it compare to earlier approaches, in other words, what are the contributions of the proposed approach? (6) what are the main strengths and weaknesses of the paper/proposed approach? After summarizing all papers to be covered in lecture, the report should also include a paragraph with brief compare and contrast commentary of the papers read.

Having a copy of your reports handy in class can help guide class discussion and your participation.


Students must complete a project for the class. While project ideas will be posted on the class Web page, students are encouraged to propose their own project topics to be evaluated/approved by the instructor. Projects are individual; however, depending on their complexity, projects can involve teams of up to 2 students. 

Students are required to submit a project proposal which will contain the following information: project title; brief motivation and description of related work; proposed approach; experimental methodology; demo plan and/or expected results. Project proposals are due by the end of the third week of class. Note that project proposals will not be graded. However, the sooner they are submitted, the sooner feedback on the project will be provided.

Project deliverables will include: well-documented source code, project report, and project presentation/demo. More details about the project report and presentation will be provided later in the quarter. 

Some project ideas include:

- Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016, extend TerrainLOS to incorporate more realistic channel propagation models.

-  Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016,Port TerrainLOS to ns3. 

 Implement IEEE 802.11 PCF in ns-3.

- Propose a mechanism (e.g., using machine learning) to automatically adjust the route cache TTL for on-demand routing protocols.

- In Yalda Edalat, Katia Obraczka, and Bahadur Amiri, “A Machine Learning Approach for Dynamic Control of RTS/CTS in WLANs”, in IEEE Mobiquitous 2018, a machine learning approach was proposed to enable/disable IEEE 802.11's RTS/CTS. The proposed mechanism uses congestion as well as packet airtime to decide whether turn RTS/CTS on/off. Different metrics can be used to measure channel congestion such as mean access delay, packet delivery ratio, collision probability, status of sender's queue, average length of idle periods, etc.  In this project, you will use SENSE [1] to estimate contention using any of the metrics suggested above, other than collision probability. Based on this estimate, RTS/CTS will be enabled/disabled. As basis of comparison, you will use the standard approach to setting the value of the RT.

[1] Y. Edalat, J. S. Ahn, and K. Obraczka. “Smart Experts for Network State Estimation.” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Man- agement 13, no. 3 (2016): 622–635. 

 Student Presentations:

Students will present on a topic of their choice. Possible topics include: security in wireless networks, networking architectures and paradigms (DTN, SDN, edge computing. hybrid networks, IoT, etc). Student presenters need to pick a topic of their interest among the ones suggested. Students can also propose a new topic (need instructor's approval). Once the topic is selected, students will choose 3 papers on the topic to be covered. Selected papers need approval from instructor.

Student presentations must provide adequate overview of the topic through the papers selected (they should avoid describing the papers exactly). Presentations should provide insight and critical perspective on the state-of-the-art related to the topic being presented. Class discussion should be encouraged. The day of their presentation, the presenter does not need to submit a reading report. They should send their presentation ahead of time so it can be posted on the class Web page.

Reading List:

Timeless readings:

. Saltzer et al., End-to-end Arguments in System Design.

. Lampson, Hints for Computer System Design.

Introduction (April 4)

. L. Kleinrock, "Nomadicity: Anytime, Anywhere In A Disconnected World", Invited paper, Mobile Networks and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 4, January 1996, pp. 351-357. 

. L. Kleinrock, "An Internet Vision: The Invisible Global Infrastructure", Ad Hoc Networks Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-11, July 2003.

. M Weiser, "The Computer for the 21st Century", 1991. 

. M. Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing", Communications of the ACM, July 1993. 

 Medium Access Control I - Contention-Based MAC (April 11)

. B. P. Crow and I. Widjaja and L. G. Kim and P. T. Sakai, "IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks", 1997. IEEE Communications Magazine, 35(9):116-126. 

. Vaduvur Bharghavan, Alan Demers, Scott Shenker, Lixia Zhang, "MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless for Wireless LANs", ACM Sigcomm 94. 

. J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and C. L. Fullmer, "Floor Acquisition Multiple Access in Single-Channel Wireless Networks," ACM MONET Journal, Special Issue on Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 4, 1999, pp. 157-174. 

Medium Access Control II - Scheduled-Access MAC (April 16 and April 18)

. Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. "DYNAMMA: A DYNAmic Multi-channel Medium Access Framework for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). Oct 2007. Nominated for the best paper award. 

. V. Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks", ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET), 2006.  

. Djukic, P. and Mohapatra, P., "Soft-TDMAC: A Software TDMA-Based MAC over Commodity 802.11 Hardware", Proceedings of the INFOCOM 2009, 2009.

MANET Unicast Routing I (April 23) 

. Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, in Mobile Computing, editor T. Imielinski and Hank Korth, Kluwer, 1996. 

. An Implementation Study of the AODV Routing Protocol, Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins, Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Chicago, IL, September 2000.

MANET Unicast Routing II (April 25)  

. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), RFC 3626.

Samir R. Das, Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer and Mahesh K. Marina. Performance Comparison of Two On-demand Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Networks. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine Special Issue on Ad hoc Networking, February 2001, pp. 16-28.

MANET Multicast Routing (April 30) 

Multicast Operation of the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. Royer and Perkins, Proceedings of Mobicom, August 1999. 

. On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol. Lee, Gerla and Chiang, Proceedings of WCNC, September 1999. 


OPTIONAL READING: "Robust and Scalable Integrated Routing in MANETs Using Context-Aware Ordered Meshes". Rolando Menchaca-Mendez and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, INFOCOM'10 Proceedings of the 29th conference on Information communications, San Diego, California, USA.

 Wireless Internetworking (May 2) 

. A Mobile Host Protocol Supporting Route Optimization and Authentication, Andrew Myles, David B. Johnson, Charles Perkins, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, special issue on Mobile and Wireless Computing Networks, 13(5):839-849, June 1995.

. Mobility Support in IPv6 , Charles E. Perkins and David B. Johnson. Proceedings of the Second Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'96), November 1996.

. FLIP: A Flexible Interconnection Protocol for Heterogeneous Internetworking, Ignacio Solis and Katia Obraczka, in ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networking and Applications (MONET) Special on Integration of Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies.

Optional: TCP Performance in Mobile-IP, Foo Chun Choong.

End-to-End Protocols I: Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks (May 7) 

. Improving TCP/IP Performance over Wireless Networks, Hari Balakrishnan, Srinivasan Seshan, Elan Amir, Randy H. Katz. Proc. 1st ACM Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, Berkeley, CA, November 1995. 

. Delayed duplicate acknowledgements: a TCP-Unaware approach to improve performance of TCP over wireless, Nitin H. Vaidya, Milten N. Mehta, Charles E. Perkins, Gabriel Montenegro. 

. I-TCP: indirect TCP for mobile hosts, 15th Int'l Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), May 1995. 

End-to-End Protocols II: MANETs (May 9) 

. Analysis of TCP Performance over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, G. Holland and N. H. Vaidya, Fifth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), Seattle, August 1999.

. A Comparison of TCP Performance over Three Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Thomas Dyer, Rajendra Boppana, Mobihoc 2001.

. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with Out-of-Order Detection and Response, F. Wand and Y. Zhang, Mobihoc 2002. 

Reliable Multipoint Communication I (May 14)

 . Reliable Broadcast in Mobile Multihop Packet Networks, E. Pagani and G.P. Rossi, Proceedings of ACM/IEEE MOBICOM'97, Budapest, Hungary, Sep. 1997, pp. 34-42. 

. Anonymous Gossip: Improving Multicast Reliability in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks R. Chandra, V. Ramasubramanian, and K.P. Birman, Proceedings of IEEE ICDCS 2001, Mesa, AZ, Apr. 2001, pp. 275-283.

Reliable Multipoint Communication II (May 16)

. Combining Source- and Localized Recovery to Achieve Reliable Multicast in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks, Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, Yunjung Yi, Sung-Ju Lee, Ken Tang and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of the IFIP Networking' 04, May 2004.

. Reliable Adaptive Lightweight Multicast Protocol, Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2003, May 2003.

Optional reading: Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, “Congestion Controlled Adaptive Lightweight Multicast in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE ISCC, July 2002.

 Security in MANETs (May 23)

. Lidong Zhou and Z. J. Haas, "Securing ad hoc networks," in IEEE Network, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 24-30, Nov.-Dec. 1999.

. Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig, and David B. Johnson. 2002. "Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks". In Proceedings of the 8th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '02). 

. Manel Guerrero Zapata and N. Asokan, "Securing Ad Hoc Routing Protocols. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Wireless security (WiSE '02). 

 Machine Learning in Wireless Networks (May 28)

. Mohammad Abu Alsheikh ; Shaowei Lin ; Dusit Niyato ; Hwee-Pink Tan, "Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks: Algorithms, Strategies, and Applications", IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials ( Volume: 16 , Issue: 4 , 2014). 

. Mauro Brunato and Roberto Battiti, "Statistical learning theory for location fingerprinting in wireless LANs", Elsevier Computer Networks, Volume 47, Issue 6, 22 April 2005, Pages 825-845.

. Xu, Bo and Wolfson, Ouri and Naiman, Channah, "Machine Learning in Disruption-tolerant MANETs", ACM Trans. Auton. Adapt. Syst., Nov. 2009.

 Disruption-Tolerant Networking (May 30)

Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks, A. Lindgren, A. Doria, O. Schelen,  ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications, Volume 7 Issue 3, July 2003  Pages 19-20

. Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Multiple-Copy Case, T.s Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, C. Raghavendra, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Volume 16, Issue 1, Feb. 2008

. Dtlsr: Delay tolerant routing for developing regions, M. Demmer, K. Fall, NSDR '07 

Schedule (Tentative):

Date Topic Lecture notes
April 2  Course overview lecture 1
April 4  Introduction lecture 2
April 9  ns-3 and Cooja/ContikiOS tutorials

ns-3 tutorial

Cooja tutorial and video

April 11  Medium-access control  lecture 3
April 16  Medium-access control  lecture 4
April 18  Medium access and Unicast routing  lecture 5
April 23  MANET unicast routing  lecture 6
April 25  MANET unicast and multicast routing lecture 7
April 30  MANET multicast routing and wireless   internetworking lecture 8
May 2  Wireless internetworking  lecture 9
May 7  End-to-end protocols  lecture 10
May 9  End-to-end protocols lecture 11

May 14

 End-to-end protocols and reliable multicast lecture 12
May 16  Reliable multicast lecture 13
May 21  Exam  
May 23  Security in MANETs (Kyle) Kyle's presentation on Security in MANETs
May 28  ML in wireless neworks (Hari) Hari's presentation on ML in wireless networks
May 30  DTN (Jonathan) Jonathan's presentation on DTN
June 4  Mobility characterization and modeling  (Danielle Lopes)  
June 6

 Project presentations 

June 12

 Project deliverables due